SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
The first modern composite and is still the most
common is the Fiberglass, developed around 1940.
to 65 per cent of all the composites produced today
and is used for boat hulls, surfboards, sporting
goods, swimming pool linings, building panels and
Composite are used in an increasing number of products
ranging from simple sport products to advanced aerospace
structures as more manufacturers discover the benefits
of these versatile materials.
material is normally composed of at least
two elements working together to produce
new bonded material properties that are
different to the individual original properties.
Combining two or more materials that have quite
different properties forms composite materials.
materials working together provide the composite
unique properties. Wood is a natural composite,
fibers of cellulose as a resin held together
by a much weaker substance called lignin (as a
It is the lignin that makes a piece of timber
much more stronger than a bundle of cotton fibers.
is also found in cotton and linen, but it is
the binding power of lignin the makes wood stronger.
The Composite Materials market, are estimated in 7
to 8 millions of tons, all types included.
The mass of composites in a European car is equivalent
to 10% or one third of the vehicle in terms of volume.
In fact, the High Performance (HP) composites
market is recognized for its technological innovation
and belong to the so-called « advanced materials » which
are essential to the development of many products
of modern civilization: aircrafts, helicopters,
missiles, naval construction, cars, boats, etc..
Steel reinforced concrete for buildings, high performance
ceramic protective covering designed to resist explosive
impacts are some of modern composite materials that
constitute a significant proportion of the engineering
materials market through to sophisticated ranging applications.
Each type of composite presents specific performance
characteristics that provide designate selected applications.
reinforced polymers can be tailored to have
tied with relatively low weight, corrosion
resistance, flexibility and offer long term durability
under most conditions of hard environmental exposure.
section looks to guide at basic composite theory,
properties of materials used, various processing
techniques commonly found and applications of
composite products. The complementary information
is supplied by the next page WEB directory, comprising
the most important links on Composites themes.
specific strength properties
¤ About 20-40% weight savings from correspondent materials
¤ Aptitude to fabricate directional mechanical properties
¤ Exceptional corrosion resistance
¤ Excellent fatigue and fracture resistance
¤ Lower tooling cost alternatives
¤ Lower thermal expansion properties
¤ Manufacturing Simplification by integration of parts and accessories
¤ Rapid process cycles Potential
¤ Capability to answer to severe dimensional stability requirements
¤ Fatigue resistance and long-term durability characteristics when under
load or exposed to hard operating environment
¤ Steady behavior under loaded conditions
¤ Easy to inspect the quality of repair or upgrade installations
¤ Increased awareness and confidence in applications of advanced composites.
A large amount of composites are made up of just
two materials. One material being the matrix
or binder surrounds and binds together the reinforcement
a cluster of fibers or fragments of a much stronger material. In fiberglass,
fine threads or fibers of glass, often woven into a sort of cloth, provide
the reinforcement and the matrix is a plastic.
METALS & ALLOYS
Modern engineering practice is represented by structural steel, the versatile
construction material has several characteristics, or properties, while structural
steel is an especially common example of metals for engineering, it is necessary
to consider numerous others such as gold, platinum, lead and tin.
An alloy is a metal composed of more than one element.
Engineering alloys include the cast irons and steels,
aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, nickel
alloys, zinc alloys and copper alloys.
term ceramic means burnt stuff, indicating that
desirable properties of these materials are normally
attained due to a high-temperature heat treatment
process. Ceramic materials are inorganic, nonmetallic materials.
Ceramic materials are essential nowadays as example ceramic engine
offers huge advantages in terms of fuel economy, efficiency, weight
savings and performance
as well as some of the internal automotive components made from ceramics.
solid polymer material contains many chemically
bonded parts or elements which themselves are
bonded together to form a solid
as well as the word polymer
literally meaning "many parts". Plastics and elastomers
are important polymeric materials for the industry.
Plastics represent a vast and assorted assemblage of synthetic materials,
which are processed by forming or molding into a shape.
Plastics can be separated into two classes, thermoplastics and thermosetting
plastics, depending on its structures and chemically bonded.
Elastomers or rubbers are elastically deformable in a large amount
whereby an applied force and can return to their original shape when
the force is released.
important electrical property, the semi-conduction
is due to a relatively small collection of elements and compounds
that are neither good electrical
conductors nor good electrical insulators, except the intermediate
ability to conduct electricity.
The called semiconductors are
not found in any of the
four structural materials categories based on atomic bonding. Metals
are inherently good electrical conductors and ceramics and polymers
(non-metals) are generally
poor conductors but good insulators.
The three semi conducting elements
(Si, Ge, and Sn) serve as a kind of boundary between metallic
and nonmetallic elements.
Widely used elemental semiconductors as Silicon (Si) and germanium
(Ge), , are excellent examples of this class of materials.