INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM | Process |
INFORMATION & TRENDS
Industrial processes are procedures involving
electric, electronic, chemical or mechanical
methods to perform the manufacture of an item
or items, generally on a large scale.
process is related to the scale or investment required.
Production of specific materials may involve more
than one type of process as components of heavy
Industrial processes are nowadays directly interconnected
¤ Monitoring & Control
¤ Optimazion & Efficiency
¤ IT Information Technology
¤ Training & Security
present main challenges on industrial process are
efficiency, energy and environment.
PROCESS PRODUCTS & TECHNOLOGY
The Portal Process Section provide
models of industrial process for the purpose
of developing, studying and evaluating process & control
technology, trends and R&D, technical information,
descriptions of successful energy/efficiency
programs, and links to other useful sites directories.
A broad range
of processing plants, including those in the
industry segments: chemicals; pulp & paper;
petroleum, coal & natural gas; plastics;
metals; food & beverage; non-metallic minerals;
pharmaceuticals; detergents & cleaning compounds;
rubber products; protective coatings; thermal
utilities; textiles; select secondary manufacturers;
process consultancies; plant construction firms;
and labs & government institutions.
The portal is designed to keep users informed
on the products, technology, events, applications,
and news of industry emphasizing the subjects:
¤ Processing Equipment |
Equipment trends for the processing industries.
¤ Measurement & Control | Technology and new products of this important
¤ Pumps & Fluid
Installing or maintaining process systems.
¤ Environment |
Environmental requirements & research
Gas & Air Handling |
Equipment and instrumentation for liquid and
gas handling systems.
Detection & Analysis |
Measurement and control of gases process safety.
¤ Hazardous Environments |
Requirements of hazardous locations.
Control & Automation |
Control technologies & the processing industries
new levels of productivity.
themes present methods well suited for a wide
variety of studies including both plant-wide
control and multivariable control problems,
however within a main target for SME – Small
and Medium Enterprises.
Control methods are used whenever some measure, such as temperature,
pressure or speed, must be provided to perform in some desirable
way over time.
Control methods applications
make possible the use of electrical or electronic
signals to control, and precision resulting more
accurate than previously thought possible.
Control is a common
concept, since there always are variables and quantities,
which must be made to act in some desirable way
In addition to the
engineering systems, processes that can be studied
by the automatic control methods control variables
technological demands extremely challenging and
widely varying control problems.
THE PRACTICE OF CONTROL
designs involves a large fraction of automatic
control features. Frequently, control operations
are implemented in an embedded microprocessor that
watches signals from sensors and provides command
signals to electromechanical actuators.
use of computer-aided-design (CAD) software that
embodies theoretical design algorithms allows
exchange evaluation among various performance
measures such as response speed, operating efficiency
and sensitivity to uncertainties in the system
model. The computer-based simulations are usually
applied for testing proposed control designs,
especially those for complex and expensive applications.
engineering experts operating the latest theoretical
developments and meticulous understanding of
application areas such as electronic, factory
automation, robot dynamics, heating, ventilating
and air conditioning set most control systems
the main ideas of control methodology is realizing
that carefully observing an automatic control
system, which implements in the controller a
decision process, also called the control law,
that dictates the appropriate control actions
to be taken by systems to be maintained within
decisions are taken based on how different the
actual measures are from the desired, called the
error, and on the knowledge of the process increases
and decreases. This knowledge is typically captured
in a mathematical model. Information about the
actual measure is fed back to the controller by
sensors, and the control decisions are implemented
via a device, the actuator, that increases or decreases
the flow to the system.
study of dynamical systems is the core in the control
systems area. Control decisions are projected to
be derived and accomplished over real time in the
control of dynamical systems.
is a key concept involving the actual sensed
values of system variables, sourced back and
logic used to control the system. Feedback
is used extensively to cope with incertitude
about the system and its environment.
about the actual system behavior (closed-loop feedback
control) establishes the control law decision process
based not only on predictions about the plant behavior
derived from the system model as in open-loop control.
mathematical foundations establish the theory of
control systems, from partial differential equations;
topology, differential geometry and abstract algebra
are used to study particularly complex phenomena.
Including behavior of the system variables typically
described by differential or difference equations
in the time domains; by Laplace, Z and Fourier
transforms in the transform (frequency) domain;
there are recognized methods and mathematical theories
to study stability and optimality.
research Control System Theory also involves
other areas, such as signal processing, Communications,
Automation Engineering and KM – Knowledge
development of control methodologies to answer
the new challenges will require original ideas
and interdisciplinary approaches, in addition
to additional developing and refining current
escalating technological requirements, efficiency,
energy, impose requests for innovative, more
accurate, less expensive and more efficient control
solutions to present and further problems.
the control complexity is more multifaceted,
while less information are available about their
dynamical behavior, and flexible structures,
including control of emissions, industrial automation,
airspace and underwater exploration, and control
of communication networks.
Control challenges requires the ability to address
and solve new problems since it assumes sounding
foundations in engineering and mathematics, uses
extensively Simulation computer software and
hardware and in a multiplicity of disciplines,
from aeronautical to electronics and petrochemical
EMERGING CONTROL AREAS
in computer science, and engineering, are influencing
developments in control increasing availability
of vast computing power, and the Simulation development.
Control systems are mainly decision-making systems
where the decisions are based on potential behavior
forecast derived through models of the controlled
systems, and on sensor-obtained observations
of the actual behavior that are sourced back.
The Control decisions are converted into control
actions using control actuators.
control methodology is induced by developments
in sensor and actuator technology.
Planning and expert systems are decision processes serving purposes
similar to control systems and direct naturally interdisciplinary research
and intelligent control methods.
Research disciplines represents significant interest
in understanding and controlling manufacturing
processes, leading to interdisciplinary research
to study the control of discrete-event systems,
which cannot be expressed by habitual differential
or difference equations; and to the study of
hybrid control systems that deal with the control
of systems with continuous dynamics by sequential
examples of methodologies control that engineers
are examining to address the control of very
complex systems are Fuzzy control logic and neural
control systems are able to cope and maintain acceptable
performance levels under significant unexpected
incertitude and failures, systems that demonstrate
considerable grades of autonomy.
automated manufacturing; intelligent robots; highly
efficient and fault tolerant networks; reliable
electric power generation and distribution; and
highly efficient control for a cleaner environment
are integrated concentration of essential features
in the area of controls that are increasing complex
availability of new software's tools creating predictive
models of product properties, production and process
events, and models used as virtual sensors, property
predictors, and a model-based for industrial process